Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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CONTENTS

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p. v

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

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p. vii

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. ix-x

This book would not have been possible without the assistance and support of many people and organizations. We would first like to thank Atlantic Philanthropies, the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Annie E. Casey Foundation for their generous support of our work. ...

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CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION

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pp. 1-17

In the 1996 commencement address he delivered at Princeton University, President Bill Clinton declared, “It is clear that America has the best higher education system in the world and that it is the key to a successful future in the twenty-first century. It is also clear that because of costs and other factors ...

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CHAPTER TWO. THE EMERGENCE OF THE WORK-FIRST PRESCRIPTION

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pp. 18-36

Where did “work-first” come from? How did this particular philosophy gain such overwhelming acceptance and power among policymakers at all levels and with the general public? How did it displace the human-capital ideas that animated much of social policymaking in the late twentieth century and are ...

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CHAPTER THREE. WELFARE REFORM AND ACCESS TO POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION:NATIONAL TRENDS

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pp. 37-63

When examined within a broader context of beliefs about higher education and its role in American society, it is quite remarkable that federal welfare reform so clearly discourages access to college. Postsecondary education leads to a wide array of individual and collective benefits, both monetary and nonmonetary. Scholars have found that postsecondary education is linked to ...

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CHAPTER FOUR. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WELFARE REFORM:CONSISTENCY AND CHANGE

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pp. 64-96

The move to “end welfare as we know it” was an action formally initiated by the federal government and signed by President Bill Clinton over the objections of his two chief advisers, Mary Jo Bane and David Ellwood.1" This new approach toward serving America’s poor was intended to be enacted across ...

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CHAPTER FIVE. THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT:INVESTMENT OR DISINVESTMENT?

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pp. 97-123

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and the 1996 welfare-reform legislation (the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) are inextricably linked by an endorsement of the “work-first” ideology and a rejection of the human-capital narrative. As such, the full impact ...

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CHAPTER SIX. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WIA:DOES THE RHETORIC MATCH THE REALITY?

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pp. 124-140

Public policies are driven by political ideas, goals, and rhetoric, and the Workforce Investment Act is no exception. As explained in the last chapter, WIA contains two major philosophies: a work-first approach, which is designed to foster immediate attachment to the labor market without much ...

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CHAPTER SEVEN. THE POWER OF WORK-FIRST: IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS

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pp. 141-156

Julie is a twenty-year-old single white mother—demographically speaking, a typical welfare recipient.1 She has a daughter just under two years old. In addition to working fifteen hours a week, she is enrolled in the local community college where she is pursuing an associate’s degree in education. Julie ...

NOTES

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pp. 167-180

REFERENCES

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pp. 181-187

INDEX

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pp. 199-216