Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

About the Authors

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p. ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xviii

The proper attribution for the above verse is probably lost to history— it has been widespread in the Midwest since at least the early twentieth century. It seems to echo another, much more ancient and widespread, set of ideas based on the four directions: Native American ...

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Chapter One. Contexts

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pp. 1-9

Pretty much everyone is an environmentalist. One fairly recent survey of lay people in the United States indicated that virtually 100 percent of those polled agreed with the statement “We have a moral duty to leave the Earth in as good or better shape than we found it.” One might expect ...

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Chapter Two. Why Meanings Matter:Culture, Concepts,and Behavior

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pp. 10-22

In 1940 the German-born American anthropologist Franz Boas introduced the notion of cultural relativism to the social sciences. The underlying idea was that we should withhold from judging the behavior of members of other cultures and instead should engage in understanding ...

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Chapter Three. The Study of Culture:A Framework for Theory and Methodology

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pp. 23-34

It is hard to do cultural research without having a clear definition of culture in mind. Serious questions come up whenever cultural comparisons are undertaken—for example, how to decide what groups are relevant to study; how to select samples of participants; how to measure whatever it ...

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Chapter Four. Categorization in Cultural Perspective

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pp. 35-43

Since we're going to be talking about how two different groups think about nature, it seems like a good idea to place our work in the context of other work on cross-cultural similarities and differences in categorization of biological kinds. If you’re just interested in intergroup conflict ...

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Chapter Five. Contemporary Setting and Conflicts

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pp. 44-57

There is considerable tension over Native American hunting and fishing rights in Wisconsin. Letters to sporting magazines commonly urge the boycotting of casinos run by Indian tribes until the tribes give up their right to set their own hunting and fishing regulations. Many ...

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Chapter Six. Ethnographic and Historical Background

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pp. 58-67

The Menominee have been in Wisconsin for a long, long time—evidence from the tribe’s oral tradition and archaeological records both provide clear evidence that Menominee residence in the area dates back at least several thousand years (Beck 2002). The name of the tribe in the Menominee ...

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Chapter Seven. The Folk biology of Freshwater Fish

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pp. 68-86

This book is about intergroup conflict over natural resources, mainly fish and game. Even though experts from the two groups included in this study, Menominee Indians and majority-culture sportsmen, more or less agree on their basic values with respect to conservation, they are often in ...

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Chapter Eight. Ecological Orientation

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pp. 87-97

To be successful in fishing, you have to know where certain species are found and usually that means knowing what they are eating; what they are eating often consists of other fish. Are the two groups of experts equally knowledgeable concerning where fish are found and which fish ...

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Chapter Nine. Values, Attitudes,and Practices

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pp. 98-107

By means of studies 1 to 4 we have established that Menominee fishermen tend to use an ecological framework to conceptualize fish. Menominees also commonly express the attitude that every fish has a role to play and are less likely than majority-culture fishermen to think of fish in ...

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Chapter Ten. Intra- and Intergroup Perception of Goals and Values

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pp. 108-119

The studies described in chapter 9 established the existence of substantial agreement between our two groups, and some second-order differences. Majority-culture fishermen were slightly more approving of practicing catch-and-release exclusively

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Chapter Eleven. Fishing: Cultural Changes

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pp. 120-131

Douglas Medin of our research team grew up in Iowa and Minnesota in a typical midwestern hunting and fishing family. Here is his first-person perspective on that time: At least in northern Minnesota in the 1950s and ’60s, it seemed like everyone was fishing for food. Sure, there were lots of ...

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Chapter Twelve. Hunting and Forest Ecology

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pp. 132-144

Our studies of hunting very much parallel our research on fish and fishing. As with fishing, cultural differences in hunting orientation lead to misperceptions and intergroup conflict. Would we continue to find that majority-culture sportsmen misperceive Menominee values when we ...

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Chapter Thirteen. Ecological and Value Ratings

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pp. 145-160

Our research with hunters partially parallels the studies done with expert fishermen. Initially we asked a sample of Menominee and majority culture hunters to name the most important plants and animals of the forest. We used these nominations to select twenty-nine animals and ...

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Chapter Fourteen. Reported and Perceived Hunting Values

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pp. 161-172

In the previous chapter we looked at the ways Menominee and majority- culture hunters rate the importance to themselves and to the forest of certain species. We found general agreement coupled with modest group differences. This is essentially the same result as we reported for the fish ...

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Chapter Fifteen. Why Meanings Matter

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pp. 173-184

Dear Amy: My boyfriend and I are in our early 50s, so we’re not kids. We get along great and are even speaking of marriage. Here’s the problem: I am a true-blue animal advocate. Frank absolutely loves to hunt. He hunts deer, turkey and bear—anything he can. He wants for nothing ...

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Chapter Sixteen. Summary and Implications

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pp. 185-189

IT IS TIME to address ourselves to the potential implications of our research for policy. Along the way, we’ll discuss possible misconceptions concerning our goals and orientation. ...

Notes

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pp. 191-201

References

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pp. 203-212

Index

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pp. 213-223