Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-2

The research for this project is grounded in the presidential libraries and the LULAC papers. An archival researcher is only as good as the archivists on whom he or she must rely, and I am pleased to acknowledge the help I received on this project at the Truman Library, the Eisenhower Library, the Kennedy Library, the Johnson Library, the Nixon Presidential Materials at National Archives II ...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-10

This book is about ethnic identity and the development of civil rights policy. More specifically, it examines the expansion of civil rights protections from a focus on racial minorities in the American Southeast to language and cultural minorities of the Southwest. That expansion is an important, and often overlooked, element in the rights revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...

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1. A League of American Citizens

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pp. 11-35

The story of national Mexican American civil-rights policy has its origins in the years leading up to World War II. The history of Mexican Americans, of course, reaches back much further, but developments that would give shape to Mexican American efforts and policies through the civil rights era can be dated to the 1920s and 1930s. ...

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2. Immigrants, Citizens, and Stakeholders

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pp. 36-61

In 1942, LULAC held its national convention in Albuquerque, where the organization dedicated a new community center. This meeting received special attention, not only from the usual parties, such as Mexican Americans and local and state government officials, but also from the federal government’s war machine. ...

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3. The Paradox in Domestic Policy

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pp. 62-90

In 1944, the Swedish social scientist Gunnar Myrdal published An American Dilemma, a study of race relations in the United States. Myrdal argued that the American dilemma stemmed from the discontinuity between the reality of racism and the rhetoric of the “American Creed” that all men are created equal. ...

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4. Stepchildren of the Great Society

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pp. 91-121

Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law on August 6, 1965. The act represented the high-water mark of the Great Society legislation. When combined with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, it completed the one-hundred-year-old promise of Reconstruction to force the United States through federal law to treat its citizens equally. ...

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5. Between Chicanos and Republicans

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pp. 122-155

On January 30, 1968, on the first day of Tet, the Vietnamese holiday celebrating the new lunar year, National Liberation Front forces attacked the American embassy in Saigon and sites in major cities throughout South Vietnam. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces staged a successful counteroffensive, but the enemy’s surprise attack, ...

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6. Policies for the Spanish Speaking

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pp. 156-185

Richard Nixon won the 1972 election in a landslide. His political team proved highly effective in targeting desired constituencies: the stereotypical Dayton housewife who represented middle America along with the working-class, ethnics (the Spanish speaking and eastern European in particular), and conservatives. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 186-206

By 1975 the key ideological, legislative, and bureaucratic elements of Mexican American and Latino civil-rights policy were in place. Policymakers of both parties, high elected officials and low-level appointed ones, generally accepted the argument that Spanish-speaking Americans face discrimination and/or disadvantage that require federal remedy. ...

Notes

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pp. 207-248

Index

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pp. 249-254