Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright

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Contents

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p. v

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Preface

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pp. vii-x

This study is a retrospective view of the protective factors that are critical to African American deaf and hard of hearing students’ successful transition through postsecondary programs. The data come from a qualitative study of nine African American men and women...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This book is dedicated to my mother, Ida Minerva Williams; my grandmother, Mamie Estelle Washington; and my uncle, John C. Cabot. They taught me the importance of God, love, positive family and other relationships, open communication, academic...

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Introduction

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p. xi

Resilience i s the ability to rebound and achieve healthy development and successful learning despite obstacles and adversities. It is the ability to persevere through the challenges and stress that occur in today’s world (Benard, Amsden, & Diaz, 2002;...

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1 At-Risk Factors and Resilience

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pp. 1-23

A comprehens ive and collaborative educational approach needs to be taken to improve the educational achievement of African American students. Large achievement gaps in educational outcomes still persist between diverse groups, and by some measurements,...

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2 Backgrounds of Successful Postsecondary Graduates

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pp. 24-36

The participants in this study* are all African American deaf and hard of hearing college or university graduates. They have encountered obstacles that could have interfered with their academic achievement; however, they persevered, overcame these...

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3 Protective Factors in the Family

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pp. 37-67

The African American family has been the subject of many studies that have focused on the weakness of the family structure and culture. Historically, African American families have had to overcome major obstacles to obtain an education for their children...

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4 Individual Characteristics

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pp. 68-81

The participants of this study are resilient. They know and accept who they are without any reservations. They are both African American and deaf or hard of hearing, and they feel at ease in both cultures and have positive interpersonal relationships...

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5 The Role of Schools in Resilience

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pp. 82-108

The school plays a paramount role in the development of children in their intellectual, social, physical, and emotional development. This development is enhanced when the educational setting has in place protective factors that help develop and reinforce...

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6 Protective Factors in Postsecondary Programs

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pp. 109-126

Postsecondary programs across the nation are seeking ways to improve recruitment, retention, and graduation rates of minorities. Predominately White colleges and universities have initiated programs specifi cally to increase the graduation rates of...

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7 Community Protective Factors

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pp. 127-135

The African American community and cultural organizations were credited with giving care and support, setting high expectations, and providing positive reinforcement and resources. VR and the church also provided the participants with care and support...

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8 Overcoming Obstacles

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pp. 136-149

The participants discussed specifi c obstacles that interfered with their successful transitions through elementary school, high school, and postsecondary programs. These obstacles included lack of understanding of Deaf culture and sign language; lack of academic readiness; negative infl uences; lack of faculty and...

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9 A Resilience Program Model

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pp. 150-169

The data from this research suggest that the participants were resilient individuals. Protective factors in their lives helped them become resilient, and these factors facilitated their successful transitions through elementary school, high school, and postsecondary programs. Much can be learned from the data in this...

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10 Conclusions and Recommendations

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pp. 170-180

In this study, the African American deaf and hard of hearing participants described the protective factors that their parents, schools, postsecondary programs, community organizations, and other stakeholders provided for them. These protective factors contributed to their academic preparation for postsecondary programs and their...

Appendix

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pp. 181-190

References

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pp. 191-202

Index

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pp. 203-211