Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

As this book went to press, the United Kingdom was undergoing remarkable political change. In the May 2010 general elections, for only the second time since World War II, no party received a majority of seats in the House of Commons. After ‹ve days of negotiations, David Cameron’s Conservative Party and Nick Clegg’s Liberal Democrats formed a coalition government...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This project is the result of years of guidance, assistance, and support from many individuals in Ann Arbor, Iowa City, France, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere. I could not have completed this book without their efforts. Several faculty at the University of Michigan—Chris Achen, Samuel Eldersveld...

List of Political Party Names

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pp. xiii-xv

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1. Small Party Survival: Challenges and Solutions

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pp. 1-25

When British people (the forerunner to the Green Party) was formed in 1973, European party systems were still dominated by large, mainstream political parties stretching ideologically from the communist left to the center right. During the 1970s, the communists, social democrats, liberals, conservatives, and Christian democrats together received an average of 86.2 percent...

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2. Balancing Preferences: A Theory of Small Party Survival

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pp. 26-52

If we follow the Downsian de‹nition of parties as groups that exist to control government and only formulate policies to win elections (Downs 1957, 25, 28), then we would expect political parties that do not ful‹ll these criteria to have disappeared. However, we know that there are small parties...

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3. Preelection Coalitions in France: A Lasting Electoral Strategy?

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pp. 53-78

Parties often create preelection alliances or coalitions (PECs) with other parties. Under some of these partnerships, several parties may fuse and run a joint list throughout the country. In Israel, for example, many small parties will fuse before the election and run a joint list against the two...

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4. Focusing Locally and Targeting Nationally in the United Kingdom: Working toward Representation in Westminster

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pp. 79-108

At the 1989 british green party conference, a motion was introduced that advocated collaboration with Labour and the Social and Liberal Democrats (SLD) so that only one candidate would run in each constituency. The motion did not receive the two-thirds majority necessary to...

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5. Communicating Credibility: Elected Officials and Media Strategies

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pp. 109-138

The way that parties communicate their message to voters is another key piece of the credibility puzzle, especially when a small party is seeking to balance its goals of maximizing its vote share potential and of avoiding straying too far from its core policy preferences. The party’s communication...

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6. The Balancing Act Synthesized: Policy, Electoral, and Communication Strategies

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pp. 139-152

In May 1968, student activists ripped up cobblestones and hurled them at the Paris police, yelling, “Under the pavement, the beach.” These activists and others in France and across Europe wanted to usher in a new era in which the hierarchical top-down relationship between politicians, institutions...

Appendixes

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pp. 153-160

Notes

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pp. 161-174

References

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pp. 175-192

Index

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pp. 193-203