Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. 8

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

At the conclusion of a project that has lasted for five years, I am conscious of many debts to individuals without whose help this book would have been a much poorer production. At the top of the list are those historians who read various versions of the manuscript and gave freely of their advice, criticism, and

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Introduction: Christian Anti-Internationalism

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pp. 1-7

The creation of the League of Nations in 1919 remains one of the pivotal turning points in American and world history. It marked the point of departure between a world system that had been structured around unfettered national sovereignties and merely ad hoc alliances and a new era of increasingly circumscribed...

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1. The Social Gospel and Modern Internationalism

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pp. 8-26

In 1870, British prime minister William Ewart Gladstone wrote an anonymous article, ‘‘Germany, France, and England,’’ for the Edinburgh Review. In this article, this devout Anglican addressed his hopes for the future of Christendom and sketched a coming new world order of morally enlightened, democratic nations preserving...

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2. Dispensationalists: Prefiguring the Latter Days

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pp. 27-52

The Protestant community’s most active and passionate opponents of the League of Nations were the dispensational premillennialists. They were anti-internationalists long before the Covenant of the League of Nations had even been sketched, let alone publicly discussed, and much that the Social Gospel campaigns helped fuel their opposition, it is safe to assume that they would have resisted the...

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3. Calvinists: Contesting the Public Means of Grace

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pp. 53-78

The creedally oriented conservatives of the Calvinist tradition were just as critical of the League of Nations as were the leading dispensationalists. Their contributions to Christian anti-internationalism issued from a biblical literalism rooted in the traditional confessional orthodoxies of the Reformed tradition. Being...

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4. Lutherans: The Two Kingdoms and the Antichrist

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pp. 79-102

Since the mid–twentieth century, the Lutheran confessional tradition has been known for the pioneering internationalism of its Lutheran World Federation. Under the auspices of this organization, Lutherans have involved themselves in international cooperation in a range of ecumenical and secular fields, and, with...

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5. Methodists and Episcopalians: A Few Dissenting Voices

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pp. 103-121

Among the denominations that were most supportive of the League of Nations were the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Protestant Episcopal Church. Probably no other denominations yielded as many passionate protagonists for Christian internationalism as these two, and nowhere was the anti-League position...

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6. Religion and the League of Nations Fight in the Senate

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pp. 122-146

All strands of Christian anti-internationalism found their way into the political debate on the ratification of the League of Nations Covenant. Whether only nominal Christians or actual lay activists, the politicians and publicists who participated in this debate showed great interest in borrowing evangelical formulations....

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7. Religion and the League for the Preservation of American Independence

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pp. 147-170

The Irreconcilable and Reservationist senators were not the only politicians who resorted to religious arguments when they campaigned against the League of Nations. Concurrently with their debates, there was afoot in the country a number of other anti-League publicity, propaganda, and persuasion campaigns, some...

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8. The Persistence of Christian Anti-Internationalism

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pp. 171-186

The League of Nations controversy set the parameters for all subsequent conservative evangelical commentary on modern internationalism. Some contextual modifications were later effected, but these changes were minor and did not materially unsettle any core parts of the corpus of interpretations that had...

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Conclusion: Christian Anti-Internationalism in Historical Context

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pp. 187-192

Two crucial consequences of the religious League of Nations controversy stand out. First, it had an important proximate result in that it helped conservative evangelicals of very different denominational traditions acknowledge each other as allies in a struggle against shared churchly and secular enemies....

Notes

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pp. 193-214

Bibliography

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pp. 215-234

Index

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pp. 235-246