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藕团苗语相比于其他苗语方言显得韵母数量较多,以往的苗语文献 (如 Wang Fushi 1985,Li 2000 等)多区分固有韵母和借词韵母,借词韵母的地位是边缘性的。本文则将藕团苗语韵母区分为固有韵母和新增韵母,新增韵母可以理解为新增固有韵母,地位和固有韵母相同。其所据为以下四项语言学标准:有固有词读入新增韵母,有苗语的基本词被新增韵母的借词替换,有老借词读入新增韵母,有来源未明的词读入新增韵母等。藕团苗语的数词“一”和“八”同音,由于会引发巨大的交际成本,这种情况在人类语言中比较罕见,藕团苗语主要用语码转换来解决“一”和“八”同音的问题。以上两项特征反映了藕团苗语和当地侗语、汉语的深度接触。


Outuan Hmong language has much more finals than other Hmong dialects. In previous Hmong language literature, there is discrimination between the original finals and the loanwords finals; the loanwords finals have been treated in a less important position in the phonological system of Hmong language. This paper suggests to differentiate the original finals and the new finals. The new finals mean the newly-added original finals, which have the equal position with the original finals. The conclusion is based on four linguistic standards: some original words of Hmong language are pronounced in the new finals; some basic words in the new finals; some old loanwords in the new finals; some words which source cannot be recognized are pronounced in the new finals. In Outuan Hmong language, the number “one” and “eight” are homonym, which could lead to quite inefficient communication exchange and is uncommon in human language. To solve the problem, the native speakers discriminate “one” and “eight” by code-switching. These two features described above reflect a close contact between the Hmong language and the local Dong language and local Chinese dialect.


苗语 韵母 数词 语言接触


Hmong language, Finals, Numerals, Language contact


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