This is a preprint

Second language (L2) learning is widely acknowledged as complex due to variables such as learner, context, and target language. Such variables are particularly relevant to the learning of immigrant or indigenous languages in countries such as Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. The motivational roles of such variables are considered through a study of intergroup learner difference in 700 New Zealand university learners of foreign languages (FLs) and Ma¯ori. Learner groups were distinguished by target language and by whether they were heritage language (HL) learners of their L2. Groups differed on several L2 motivational self system (L2MSS) variables. Significant differences existed between learners of Ma¯ori and learners of FLs, and between HL and non-HL learners. Findings also indicated that the roles of target language and HL learner status were intertwined with regard to their impact on L2MSS variables.


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