Australia has a booming market of unproven autologous stem cell– based interventions (SCBIs) for a wide range of medical conditions. Multiple SCBIs are provided in private practices outside of formal clinical trials. Some defend the provision of unproven SCBIs on grounds of patient choice. This essay interrogates this argument for patient choice and explores patients' vulnerabilities in clinical practice with autologous SCBIs. While all patients are inherently vulnerable, the regulatory framework for autologous stem cells in Australia exacerbates the problems associated with inherent vulnerabilities and generates situational and pathogenic vulnerabilities. A just state ought to implement regulatory measures that mitigate vulnerabilities and foster patients' autonomy.