This is a preprint

Zhu argues that “thoughts cannot render themselves sincere on their own”, for thoughts tend to deceive themselves, thus only objective inquiry of knowledge can ensure a proper beginning to attain genuine sincerity. Wang’s earlier doctrine of unity of knowing and doing and his later doctrine of extending liangzhi (良知, original knowledge of the good) could be understood as a response to Zhu Xi’s puzzle of self-deception.


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