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310 Shorter BookReviews an_d ~y stressin~ what the in~ividuals in the fi~ld~id and said, the au~hor paysonly m1mmalattent10nto the mmute control mamtamed through the d1rectives constantly forwarded from headquarters. Nevertheless, this study does provide an excellent analysis of the viewsofthe missionaries and clearly illustrates their importance as American colonialagents and, more broadly, in shaping American public opinion and governmentpolicy. Whilenot necessarily pleased with the particular examples of Americanimperialism found in the Philippines, the missionaries did much to promote American expansionist sentiment and to inculcate American values in the islands. This study, then, is not only an excellent history, but also a valuablecontribution to the historiography of Protestant mission work and adds significantlytoour understanding of American overseas involvement. Neil Semple Victoria University Archives Toronto Melvin L. Adelman. A Sporting Time: New York City and the Rise of Modern Athletics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, I986. 388 pp. Illus. A Sporting Time by Melvin Adelman inaugurates the University of IllinoisPress's new series onSport and Society with a strong contribution on the rise of organized sport in nineteenth-century America. A native New Yorker, trained in both physical education and history departments, Adelman teaches sports history at Ohio State University and has published extensively on the history of American sport. This book is a revised doctoral dissertation. Sport historians have long pointed to the intricate relationship betweenurban changeand sport change. Adelman acknowledges this relationship, but avoids the "sport as a mirror of society" paradigm by stressing that sport is both a partof, and an expression of a broader cultural process. Implementing a framework of modernizationpropounded by Richard Brown, Allen Guttman and Eric Dunning, Adelman uses developments in the American metropolis as a means of understanding the modernization of American sport. The result is a new periodization for the rise of modem sport. He argues that the basic structure and the ideological sanctions of modem athletics evolved betweeen 1820 and 1870, not laterinthe century, as many have assumed. Adelman lists the pre-modem and modem characteristics of sport as ideal types. His analysis, which uses a sweeping narrative supported by quantifieddata, rests upon comparisons within and between sports on matters of organization. rules, competition, role differentiation for players and spectators, public information , and statistics and records. The modernization of sport involved athletics, ShorterBook Reviews 311 becoming''increasingly organized and commercialized, marked by the emeroence of national standards and competition, specialized player roles, a burgeoningsportsinformation system, and ideological sanctions promoting the moral and socialbenefits of sport" (xi). Theintroduction is a good overview, especially for social historians unfamiliar withsports history. The section on urban growth and the modernization of New YorkCity, although brief, lays a good basis for the analysis of sport in an urban context.The remainder of the work is topically arranged, and examines turf sports,ball games, and "diverse" sports (including water sports, professional andleisure sports). Turf sports and ball games receive the most extensive coverage. Adelman's workonhorse-racing as America's first modem sport is lengthy and thorough. He outlinesthe cyclical nature of the growth of turf sports, and the external and internaldynamics of their modernization. He details differences between thoroughbredand harness-racing, with consideration given to gambling, better breeding ,and commercial arguments regarding horse-racing. Like horse-racing, the ball games cricket and baseball also assumed their modemform between 1820 and 1870. Despite this, the popularity of the two took divergentpaths. Cricket passed into oblivion while baseball emerged as the nationalpastime. Adelman shows the complexity of the question of their popularityin a detailed analysis of the internal structure and dynamics of the sports themselves, and by examining their institutional development. He rejects the popularnotion that the national characteristics and origins of the two sports determinedtheir destiny. Cricket did not fall into disfavour merely because it was a foreign sport with aristocratic overtones which had little in common with democraticAmerica. It failed because it was ''too advanced and too institutionalizedfor a society that lacked a manly ball-playing tradition," (110) and becauseit did not win the support of the New York urban upper class. Beyond this,the occupational, social class and ethnic backgrounds of cricket and baseball playersand promoters are investigated and highlighted by the author...


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