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ShorterBook Reviews 309 The author's major, though still muted, criticism of the AMA is that it was paternalisticand shared too many of the racial biases of its generation. While this isundoubtedly true, it was still well ahead of its time in accepting and fostering blackparticipation and in calling for social as well as legal equality. In a way, the author'scriticism of the AMA views the Association too much in light of current blackhistory and perhaps not enough as an evangelical missionary society. In fact,few contemporary missionary societies were as enlightened in their dealings with''heathen'' or ''sinful'' elements-whether in urban slums or heathen China. Thefervour that permitted such heroic sacrifices cannot be easily separated from thebelief in the moral and cultural superiority of Protestant, white civilization in fosteringthe "Righteous Nation" imbued with democratic virtue. Inall, a well-crafted and important contribution to the rich literature on blackwhiterelations in nineteenth-century America. Neil Semple Victoria University Archives Toronto KentonJ. Clymer. Protestant Missionaries in the Philippines, 1898-1916: An Inquiry into the American Colonial Mentality. hlrbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986. xi + 267 pp. ProfessorClymer has produced a remarkably succinct yet rich and subtle analysis ofthe ambivalent role of the first generation of Protestant missionaries who were attemptingto "civilize" the Philippines. Gone is the romantic portrait of heroic self-sacrificeand the noble unity of Protestants in carrying the white man's burden to the degenerate world. What emerges is a complex paternalistic and racist responseto the native population and to local nationalistic impulses. The book alsocritically analyses missionary competition and relations with the colonial governmentand other agents of American imperialism. The evangelistic work was founded on the well-accepted assumption of the providential responsibility of Protestant America to free this territory from the immoralityand backwardness of Spain and Roman Catholicism. The missionaries felt little discomfort proselytizing within a generally Christian society. The author,however, could have defined more clearly the spiritual roots of American "civilization"; his use of the Social Gospel is too all-encompassing and overstated . A more plausible basis would appear to be the traditional interest in convertingthe individual, arising out of the rich evangelicalism of nineteenthcenturyProtestantism . As well, except for the universal condemnation of prostitutionand gambling, the social reforms promoted exemplified the historic causes of thevarious denominations. Moreover, missionaries were only the advance agents of their home churches 310 Shorter BookReviews an_d ~y stressin~ what the in~ividuals in the fi~ld~id and said, the au~hor paysonly m1mmalattent10nto the mmute control mamtamed through the d1rectives constantly forwarded from headquarters. Nevertheless, this study does provide an excellent analysis of the viewsofthe missionaries and clearly illustrates their importance as American colonialagents and, more broadly, in shaping American public opinion and governmentpolicy. Whilenot necessarily pleased with the particular examples of Americanimperialism found in the Philippines, the missionaries did much to promote American expansionist sentiment and to inculcate American values in the islands. This study, then, is not only an excellent history, but also a valuablecontribution to the historiography of Protestant mission work and adds significantlytoour understanding of American overseas involvement. Neil Semple Victoria University Archives Toronto Melvin L. Adelman. A Sporting Time: New York City and the Rise of Modern Athletics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, I986. 388 pp. Illus. A Sporting Time by Melvin Adelman inaugurates the University of IllinoisPress's new series onSport and Society with a strong contribution on the rise of organized sport in nineteenth-century America. A native New Yorker, trained in both physical education and history departments, Adelman teaches sports history at Ohio State University and has published extensively on the history of American sport. This book is a revised doctoral dissertation. Sport historians have long pointed to the intricate relationship betweenurban changeand sport change. Adelman acknowledges this relationship, but avoids the "sport as a mirror of society" paradigm by stressing that sport is both a partof, and an expression of a broader cultural process. Implementing a framework of modernizationpropounded by Richard Brown, Allen Guttman and Eric Dunning, Adelman uses developments in the American metropolis as a means of understanding the modernization of American sport. The result is a new periodization for the rise of modem sport. He argues that...


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