This is a preprint

The Tawḥīd (Druze faith) is a non-dualistic doctrine which differs from both pantheism, in which God is immanent to the world, and monotheism, in which God is exclusively transcendent. How can one reconcile the existence of the universe with the doctrine of non-dualism, according to which nothing exists outside God? How does Unity, i.e. God relate to the world of multiplicity without losing his Oneness? In this essay, I will show that the notion of creation in the Tawḥīd is linked to two distinct modes of production in the world : ibdā‘ and khalq.


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