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An Analysis of Taiwan Southern Min Tetrasyllabic Adjective Reduplication
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  1 The Journal of Chinese Linguistics ISSN 0091-3723/An analysis of Taiwan Southern Min tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication Preprint 2017©2015 by The Journal of Chinese Linguistics. All rights reserved. 1005. AN ANALYSIS OF TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN TETRASYLLABIC ADJECTIVE REDUPLICATION Yuchau E. Hsiao1 National Chengchi University, Taiwan ABSTRACT Tetrasyllabic adjective reduplications in Taiwan Southern Min can be achieved by either partial reduplication or total reduplication. The partial reduplication may operate rightward or leftward, depending on the morpho-semantic structure of the stem. The shape of the total reduplication is determined by the semantic function, emphatic or weakening. This paper employs the theory of Cophonology, and posits four cophonologies to account for the partial and total reduplications. I argue that alignment and contiguity constraints interact differently in the cophonologies of reduplication, and the cophonologies are structurally related. The proposed approach offers a simpler and unmarked generalization, which effectively predicts the dialectal universality and variation. KEYWORDS Reduplication Cophonology Alignment Contiguity Optimality Theory Taiwan Southern Min                                                                                                                                                                  Acknowledgment I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments. All errors are my own responsibility. The author claims NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Yuchau E. Hsiao is professor at Theoretical Phonology Lab., Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 116, Taiwan, R.O.C. [ychsiao@nccu.edu.tw] 2 JOURNAL OF CHINESE LINGUISTICS (PREPRINT) The Journal of Chinese Linguistics ISSN 0091-3723/ An analysis of Taiwan Southern Min tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication Preprint 2017©2015 by The Journal of Chinese Linguistics. All rights reserved. 1005.   1. INTRODUCTION Reduplication has been a widely studied issue in Optimality Theory, as in work by McCarthy and Prince (1995), de Lacy (1996), Struijke (2000), Yip (2001), Walker and Feng (2004), Lunden (2004), and Inkelas (2008), among others. This paper addresses tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication in Taiwan Southern Min, the Southern Min dialect spoken in Taiwan. On this island, over 67.5% of the people speak Taiwan Southern Min as their mother language.1 In this paper, several patterns of the tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication are observed. First, the reduplication involves no change of segmental features, and applies to the syllable level. Second, there are basically four types of tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication, and three types of them (ABAC, ACBC and AABB) render semantic emphasis, but only one type (ABAB) contributes to semantic weakening. Third, the tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication can be achieved by either partial reduplication (ABC  ABAC, ACBC) or total reduplication (AB  AABB, ABAB). Fourth, the partial reduplication may operate rightward or leftward, depending on the morpho-semantic structure of the stem. Finally, the shape of the total reduplication is determined by the semantic function, emphatic or weakening. This paper employs the theory of Cophonology (Inkelas and Zoll 2007), and proposes that the cophonologies in the tetrasyllabic adjective reduplications are structurally related. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the patterns of the tetrasyllabic adjective reduplications. Section 3 proposes four structure-related cophonologies, where alignment constraints and contiguity constraints interact in various ways. Section 4 offers the conclusion. 2. TETRASYLLABIC ADJECTIVE REDUPLICATION There are basically four types of tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication: two of them are partial reduplications, including ABAC and ACBC, while the other two are total reduplications, including AABB and ABAB. The capital letters, A, B and C, respectively refer to individual syllables. In this research, I established a database containing 658 tetrasyllabic adjective reduplications: 411 of them are collected with the help of five native speakers of Taiwan Southern Min, three males and two TETRASYLLABIC ADJECTIVE REDUPLICATION 3 The Journal of Chinese Linguistics ISSN 0091-3723/ An analysis of Taiwan Southern Min tetrasyllabic adjective reduplication Preprint 2017©2015 by The Journal of Chinese Linguistics. All rights reserved. 1005.   females, aged between 61 and 73; 247 of them are compiled from the literature, such as Yang 杨 (1991), C.-T. Hsu 许 (1998), G.-C. Lu 卢 (1997), Z.-Q. Lu 卢 (2000), Lin 林 (2001), and S.-C. Hsu 徐 (2008). The data are presented in Romanization with a few modifications: ph, th, and kh respectively...


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