A large body of scholarship in Political Science suggests that the material power of a dominant state is critical for the stabilization of international order. Consequently, the relative decline of the United States and the ascendance of China raise concerns regarding the stability of the current international system. By contrast, culturalist accounts such as David Kang’s East Asia before the West submit that a stable order can be based on a shared cultural framework rather than material force. Despite their many contributions, the methodological design of such analyses—Kang’s included—do not allow us to attribute Chinese hegemony in the tributary system primarily to cultural factors. Examining the salience of cultural factors for international order requires a different research design that incorporates greater variation across history and regions and that recognizes the multivocality of imperial claims to authority.
物质力量对于国际秩序所起的重要作用引发人们对中国崛起的关注。康灿 雄等的文化主义论述则认为秩序可建基于共享的文化观，但其研究方法却无法解 释朝贡体系里文化因素的作用。因此，探讨文化对国际秩序的影响时，既要作跨 历史、跨区域的比较研究，又要考察帝国权威的多义性。