The Constructionalization of a Set of Connectives in Chinese = 汉语连词的构式化进程


In Modern Chinese, shì is found as part of the composition of a set of connectives, e.g. kěshì 'but,' yàoshì 'if.' The previous research (Dong 2004, etc.) assumes that the development of the set underwent the process of lexicalization (Lehmann 2002): the syntactic strings [Y COP] lost their internal constituency and fused into one unit over time. This paper, however, in the light of Brinton and Traugott's (2005) criteria for distinguishing lexicalization and grammaticalization, and Traugott and Trousdale's (2013) hypothesis of constructionalization, argues that the copula shì coalescing with the preceding lexemes and changing into a bound morpheme underwent grammatical constructionalization rather than what Lehmann calls lexicalization. I argue that the process of change involves grammatical constructionalization, based on the analyses of generality/schematicity, productivity and compositionality. I also consider pragmatic inferencing and analogy to be the motivation and reanalysis, analogization and subjectification to be the mechanisms of the process of constructionalization.


在现代汉语中, "是"是一组连接词如"可是""但是"的组成部分。前人的 研究(董秀芳 2004 等)认为这一系列连词的发展经历了词汇化过程 (Lehmann 2002)即结构字符串[Y COP]随着时间推移逐渐失去了他 们的内部组合性并融合成一个语素单位。本文采用 Brinton and Traugott (2005) 区 分 词 汇 化 和 语 法 化 的 标 准, 以 及 Traugott and Trousdale (2013)的构式化理论, 论证了系词"是"跟前面的语素 Y 结合, 变成粘着语素经历了语法构式化而非 Lehmann 所谓的词汇化。本文从 图式性,能产性和组合性这三个构式化维度来论证该变化是个语法构 式化过程,并指出语用推测和类比是该变化的动因,而重新分析,类 比化和主观化则是该变化的机制。