Syntax and semantics of postverbal secondary predicates in Taiwan Southern Min* = 台灣閩南語動後次要謂語的句法與語意
Abstract

Postverbal secondary predicates (PSP) in Taiwan Southern Min (TSM) are introduced by -kah4, -liau2, or -tioh8, each of which carries a different denotation. This paper argues that the PSPs introduced by each of these three markers can be further divided into three types—resultative, descriptive, and extent. The arguments are based on the scope of modification, the formation of passivization, and word order. Moreover, there exist co-occurrence restrictions between the main verb and the PSPs; achievement and accomplishment compound verbs are incompatible with PSPs. Even though PSPs with different markers behave similarly, they still differ in at least one aspect. PSPs introduced by -kah4 may be deleted, while those introduced by -liau2 or -tioh8 are not optional.

提要:

台灣閩南 語的動後次要謂語可由"kah""了"或"著"所引導,其中 每一標誌所表達的語意稍有不同。而每一標誌所引導的動後次要謂語 皆可進一步分為三類:結果、狀態、程度。本提案的論證來自修飾範 域、被動形成、及詞序的考量。此外,主要動詞及動後次要謂語之間 存有共存限制;成就與瞬間複合動詞無法與動後次要謂語共存。雖然 不同標誌所引導的動後次要謂語有相似的句法表現,它們之間至少還 有一項差異。由kah 所引導的動後次要謂語可以省略,而由了或著所 引導的則為必要的成分。


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