It is argued here that (1) distinguishing an independent political authority from traditional Confucianism’s monistic (ethical) authority is more difficult than Joseph Chan currently allows; (2) the contribution of sociopolitical participation toward individual ethical development is more critical than Chan has so far acknowledged; and (3) this tie between participation and development, in turn, leads to the need for “self-restriction,” which then provides a satisfactory basis for the independence of political from ethical authority.


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