Around 700 images published by the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale were examined to investigate the iconoclastic attacks at the Temple of Edfu and Dendera. For each scene, the degree of destruction was systematically recorded to reveal any potential prejudice against gender, appearance, or particular body parts. The selective mutilation of the feet, hands, and facial features can be attributed to practical factors as well as their symbolic significance. At the same time, there was no discrimination against gender or animal-headed deities at either Edfu or Dendera. The variations in hack marks observed at both sites were addressed with numerous illustrations. The frequent occurrence of multiple hack marks on singular scenes was interpreted as a choice with both practical and ritualistic implications. In addition to simplistic notions of religious hatred, intrinsic reward and personal gains played an equally salient role in motivating iconoclastic acts.


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pp. 89-131
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