- The Origin of the Medical Research Grant in the United States: The Rockefeller Foundation and the NIH Extramural Funding Program
- Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
- Oxford University Press
- Volume 70, Number 2, April 2015
- pp. 279-311
- View Citation
- Additional Information
The establishment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) extramural grants in the second half of the twentieth century marked a signal shift in support for medical research in the United States and created an influential model for the rest of the world. A similar landmark development occurred in the first half of the twentieth century with the creation of the Rockefeller Foundation and its funding programs for medical research. The programs and support of the foundation had a dramatic impact on medical research in the United States and globally. This paper examines early connections between these two developments. The NIH grants have usually been seen as having their roots primarily in the government programs of the Second World War. This article finds direct and indirect influence by the Rockefeller Foundation, as well as parallel developments in these two monumental programs of support for medical research.