Explicitly Teaching English Through the Air to Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing


The Effects of the Language for Learning curriculum (Engelmann & Osborne, 1999) on through-the-air (i.e., signed and/or spoken) English skills for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) were examined by means of a single-subject, concurrent-multiple-probes-acrossparticipants design. Four 11-year-old participants varied in auditory access, IQ, and age at amplification and/or cochlear implantation. All students showed increased accuracy of through-the-air English skills after the intervention (i.e., 15–20 lessons) and maintained these skills when assessed 1 week and 1 month later. The findings yielded some promising results indicating that a Direct Instruction curriculum may be an efficacious way to teach morphology and syntax to DHH students.