restricted access How Golfers and Tennis Players Frame Themselves: A Content Analysis of Twitter Profile Pictures

Media have been accused of marginalizing women’s sports by denying them coverage and emphasizing female athletes’ femininity, rather than athleticism, for decades. But in today’s world athletes may communicate directly with their fans through online social media. This gives female athletes the possibility to present themselves in a new light. Do they take advantage of it, or do they corroborate the practices of traditional media? This study was designed to determine whether a sexual difference exists in how male and female tennis players and golfers frame themselves on their official Twitter accounts. Although no sexualization was found, this study shows that female athletes visually present themselves as feminine women first and as athletes second, while the majority of their male counterparts frame themselves primarily as athletes.