The article examines the bi-nationalistic framework devised by early Zionists and its immediate and long-term implications. Various constituencies including Zionist theoreticians; Arab leaders; and Israeli, Arab, Jewish, and non-Jewish academicians have employed the term “bi-nationalism”. The manner in which bi-nationalism is discussed varies according to individuals’ political goals and their ultimate vision for the state of Israel. The concept of bi-nationalism has acquired new meaning in its application by contemporary proponents that diverges dramatically from its original conception, use, and aims. It is not a fixed and rigidly defined concept, but rather has been interpreted and employed over time by various advocates for either the construction or the dissolution of Zionist society and the Jewish state. This paper highlights key examples of individuals and movements that have espoused bi-nationalist goals, from members of Brit Shalom and Ihud beginning in the 1920s to contemporary Palestinian Arab intellectuals residing in Israel.