restricted access Income Change and Circular Migration: The Curious Case of Mobile Puerto Ricans, 1995-2010

Puerto Rican migration patterns are often circular with Puerto Ricans leaving to work on the mainland for a number of years before returning to the island. This paper explores the varied geography of Puerto Ricans migrating to and from mainland U.S. The growth of the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area as a hub for Puerto Rican migration is particularly highlighted. Using Internal Revenue Service county-to-county migration data, the income characteristics of Puerto Ricans migrating to the mainland U.S. are compared to those returning to Puerto Rico. The most consistent findings indicate that from 1995 to 2010 in-migrants from Puerto Rico had lower incomes than out-migrants to Puerto Rico as well as other migrants not moving to Puerto Rico.