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Sound Correspondences in the World's Languages: Online Supplementary Materials

From: Language
Volume 89, Number 1, March 2013
pp. s1-s76 | 10.1353/lan.2013.0012

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Language 89.1, March 2013 s1 (Table S1. Continues) SOUND CORRESPONDENCES IN THE WORLD’S LANGUAGES: ONLINE SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS CECIL H. BROWN Northern Illinois University and University of West Florida ERIC W. HOLMAN University of California, Los Angeles SØREN WICHMANN Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Application of the sound correspondence-recognition program to the ASJP database identifies 692 correspondences between nonidentical symbols. These are transcribed in ASJPcode. There are a total of 139 different symbols involved in the correspondences, including simple, modified, and compound symbols , along with *, ”, and Ø (the null set) counted as simple symbols. Detailed description of ASJPcode is given in §2.1 of the main article. For convenience in interpreting the phonological symbols of ASJPcode used in this supplement, Tables 1 and 2 of §2.1 of the main article, which give the description of and IPA values for simple ASJPcode symbols, are repeated here, labeled as Table S1 and Table S2. ASJPCODE SYMBOL DESCRIPTION IPA SYMBOLS p voiceless bilabial stop and fricative p, ɸ b voiced bilabial stop and fricative b, β f voiceless labiodental fricative f v voiced labiodental fricative v m bilabial nasal m w voiced bilabial-velar approximant w 8 voiceless and voiced dental fricative θ, ð 4 dental nasal n̪ t voiceless alveolar stop t d voiced alveolar stop d s voiceless alveolar fricative s z voiced alveolar fricative z c voiceless and voiced alveolar affricate ʦ, ʣ n alveolar nasal n r voiced apico-alveolar flap and all other varieties of ‘r-sounds’ ɾ, r, ʀ, ɽ l voiced alveolar lateral approximate l S voiceless postalveolar fricative ʃ Z voiced postalveolar fricative ʒ C voiceless palato-alveolar affricate ʧ j voiced palato-alveolar affricate ʤ T voiceless and voiced palatal stop c, ɟ 5 palatal nasal ɲ s2 ASJPCODE SYMBOL DESCRIPTION IPA SYMBOLS y palatal approximant j g voiced velar stop ɡ x voiceless and voiced velar fricative x, ɣ N velar nasal ŋ q voiceless uvular stop q G voiced uvular stop ɢ X voiceless and voiced uvular fricative, voiceless and voiced pharyngeal fricative χ, ʁ, ħ, ʕ h voiceless and voiced glottal fricative h, ɦ 7 voiceless glottal stop Ɂ L all other laterals ʟ, ɭ, ʎ ! all varieties of ‘click-sounds’ !, ǀ, ǁ, ǂ TABLE S1. ASJPcode consonant symbols and their IPA values. ASJPCODE SYMBOL DESCRIPTION IPA SYMBOLS i high front vowel, rounded and unrounded i, ɪ, y, ʏ e mid front vowel, rounded and unrounded e, ø E low front vowel, rounded and unrounded æ, ɛ, ɶ, œ 3 high and mid central vowel, rounded and unrounded ɨ, ɘ, ǝ, ɜ, ʉ, ɵ, ʚ a low central vowel, unrounded a, ɐ u high back vowel, rounded and unrounded ɯ, u o mid and low back vowel, rounded and unrounded ɤ, ʌ, ɑ, o, ɔ, ɒ TABLE S2. ASJPcode vowel symbols and their IPA values. The 692 correspondences are presented in Appendices A and B (below), along with three properties relevant to the frequency of each correspondence. NG is the number of language genera in which the correspondence is identified. AG is the number of genera in which the two corresponding sounds are frequent enough for a correspondence between them to be identified if it is actually present. CP is the correspondence percentage, which is NG/AG, expressed as a percentage. These properties, especially CP, are described in more detail in §2.3 of the main article. Appendix A lists correspondences rank-ordered by value of NG within each of three sections. Section A1 is restricted to the 582 correspondences involving consonants. These include correspondences in which consonants are paired with consonants and in which *, ”, and Ø as simple symbols are paired with consonants. Section A2 is restricted to the sixty-four correspondences involving vowels. These include correspondences in which vowels are paired with vowels and with Ø. Section A3 is restricted to the fortysix correspondences in which vowels are paired with consonants and with * and ”. s3 Appendix B presents every correspondence in which any of the 139 symbols occurs. This appendix is designed to enhance the efficiency of manual search for correspondences. Correspondence groups for consonantal symbols are listed first, ordered by the position in the oral cavity in which consonants are produced, from front to back. These are followed by groups for *, ”, and Ø, and then by groups for vowel symbols, rank-ordered by position, from front to back, and then by height within position rank, from high to low. Appendix C presents a matrix of CP for all pairs...