Distinguishing Cognate Homonyms in Indonesian

Cognate homonyms in standard Indonesian Malay can result from semantic shift, derivational conversion, or idiomatization. One problem in considering such homophonous expressions is how to differentiate between a compound word, a fixed expression, and a free phrase. Particular instances are compound and noncompound expressions having a monosyllabic component that is a clitic when not in a compound. Another source of cognate homonyms is the conversion of verb forms into nouns, or distinct word forms involving identical affixes. Finally, there are homonyms that result from grammaticalization or degrammaticalization.