HIVQUAL-US is a capacity-building quality initiative for federally-funded HIV primary care clinics. Since 2004, HIVQUAL-US has supported the formation of regional groups, geographically-clustered clinics that build quality management capacity through collective learning about quality improvement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine members’ experiences participating in groups and their self-reported quality management and improvement outcomes related to HIV primary care. Interviews were conducted with a sample of three HIVQUAL-US coaches who facilitated 11 regional groups and with nine of the clinic representatives participating in the regional groups. The regional groups were heterogeneous in composition, focus and style, but shared common activities. Benefits included implementation of group quality improvement projects and opportunities for sharing activities and challenges. Improved performance in targeted areas, enhanced understanding/use of improvement methods, and increased quality management capacity were reported outcomes. Regional groups can effectively promote peer-to-peer learning, develop leadership, strengthen quality management capacity, and improve quality of care for the HIV population.