restricted access Democratic Islamization in Pakistan and Turkey: Lessons for the Post-Arab Spring Muslim World

This article compares and contrasts democratic Islamization in Pakistan and Turkey, two countries where Islamic parties came to power through electoral means. Based on a comparative analysis of these experiences, this article will make the case that democratic Islamization can be best understood through a three-fold approach focusing on Islamization of educational systems, economies, and social policies. This analysis introduces two models of Islamic democracy: the “Conflicted Repressive Islamization” of Pakistan, and the “Subtle Islamization” of Turkey. It also suggests that the Turkish model will serve as the inspiration for future reformers in the Muslim world.