We employ Chinese population census data to consider married, urban women's labor force participation decisions in the context of their families. We find that the presence in the household of a parent, parent-in-law, or person aged 75 or older increases prime-age women's likelihood of participating in market work. The presence of preschool-aged children decreases it. The negative effect on women's labor force participation of having young children in the household is substantially larger for married, rural-to-urban migrants than for their nonmigrant counterparts. Similarly, the positive effect of coresidence with elders is larger for rural-to-urban migrant women than for nonmigrants.