4. The questions which this letter has raised historically are not critical to our discussion, however, the manuscript tradition for the letter begins only in 1342, and the text is transmitted only among the collections which deal with Anthony, not Francis.
5. The Vita prima of Celano records the fact of Francis' appearance at Arles, during the chapter of the friars at the point where Anthony preached on the cross. The author of the Legenda assidua knew the text of Celano, so the Assidua's silence on this event is significant.
9. At his death, Celano reports that Francis exhorted the brothers with these words: "'Let us begin, brothers, to serve the Lord God, for up to now we have made little or no progress.' He did not consider that he had laid hold of his goal as yet, and persevering untiringly in his purpose of attaining holy newness of life, he hoped always to make a beginning. He wished to go back again to serve the lepers, to be held in contempt, as he once had been" (1 Celano 103).
10. These developments in the twelfth century are chronicled and discussed in the essays contained in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, Robert L. Benson, Giles Constable, eds. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).
11. See the classic essays by M. D. Chenu, "Monks, Canons and Laymen in Search of the Apostolic Life," and "The Evangelical Awakening," in Nature, Man and Society in the Twelfth Century, selected, edited, and translated by Jerome Taylor and Lester K. Little (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968): 202-269.
12. This text is referred to in a number of different ways and has been edited by numerous scholars. The most recent Latin edition of the sources gives it the title, Compilatio Assisiensis. Ed. Enrico Menestò & Stefano Brufani. Fontes Franciscani (Assisi: Edizioni Porziuncola, 1995): 1449ff. Even more complicated is the history of its interpretation, and the interpretation of its origins. I would hold that the text represents a primitive version of that body of material which was produced in response to Crescentius of Jesi's request for information about Francis from his companions in the Genoa chapter of 1244. Celano's Vita secunda used these texts as a source.
19. See the article by J. Matthew Ashley, "The Turn to Spirituality? The Relationship between Theology and Spirituality," Christian Spirituality Bulletin 3:2 (1995): 13-18. A recent demonstration of a methodology which uses spirituality as a resource for theology can be found in Elizabeth A. Dreyer, "Spirituality as a Resource for Theology: The Holy Spirit in Augustine," Christian Theology Bulletin 4:2 (1996): 1-12, and the response by John C. Cavadini, "The Holy Spirit and Culture...