Kenneth N. Waltz is Ford Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He has written Man, The State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis (1959), Foreign Policy and Democratic Politics: The American and British Experience (1967, reissued 1992), Theory of International Politics (1979), and numerous essays. His "Nuclear Myths and Political Realities" won the Heinz Eulau award for best article in the American Political Science Review in 1990.
For their thoughtful comments, I should like to thank Karen Adams, David Arase, Jamais Cascio, James Fearon, Robert Gilpin, Robert Keohane, Sean Lynn-Jones, Robert Powell, and Steve Weber.
2. Lawrence Eagleburger, quoted in Thomas Friedman, "U.S. Voicing Fears That Gorbachev Will Divide West," New York Times, September 16, 1989, pp. 1, 6; John J. Mearsheimer, "Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War," International Security, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Summer 1990), pp. 5-56.
4. On the causes of multipolar-conventional war and of bipolar-nuclear peace, see esp. Waltz, "Stability," The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: More May Be Better, Adelphi Paper No. 171 (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies [IISS], 1981); and Waltz, Theory of International Politics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979). John Lewis Gaddis and Mearsheimer have offered similar explanations. See Gaddis, "The Long Peace," International Security, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Spring 1986), pp. 99-142. Since the reasoning is now familiar, I refrain from summarizing it here.
14. Quoted in Josef Joffe, "After Bipolarity: Eastern and Western Europe: Between Two Ages," in The Strategic Implications of Change in the Soviet Union, Adelphi Paper No. 247 (London: HSS, Winter 1989/90), p. 71.
15. The Economist apparently believes that Britain and France were great powers well into the 1950s, claiming that the Suez Crisis of 1956 "helped destroy Britain and France as great powers"; June 16, 1990, p. 101.
19. Some Soviet commentators understand this. See, especially, Andrei Kokoshin, "The Future of NATO and the Warsaw Pact Strategy: Paper II," in The Strategic Implications of Change in the Soviet Union, Adelphi Paper No. 247 (London: IISS, Winter 1989/90), pp. 60-65.