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778BOOK REVIEWS For readers already well-versed in the history ofRoman urbanism and the history ofmonasticism,Landmarking may not offer enormous surprises until it arrives at the Ignatian material. Many of the individual chapters of the book synthesize previous scholarship and the primary research is limited to a thorough reading of Ignatius's letters, which while published, because they are in three languages and vast, are understudied. They certainly have never been looked at with Jesuit urbanism in mind. Nonetheless, this is a very sensitive work of synthesis, which carves out a new subject through a "discerning"weaving together of various heretofore disparate histories. What emerges from this broad sweep of the history of the Church, the city, Ignatius, and the early selffashioning of the Society, is an immensely rich sense of purpose that, once forged out of contradictory traditions and impulses, radiated outward from Rome to all corners of the earth. Lucas calls it "a strategy." One final word about Ignatius. Landmarking is in many senses a work of revisionist hagiography, a recasting of the founder of the Society of Jesus as a deeply practical man. While the Jesuits have always revered Ignatius as their founder (indeed one of his seventeenth-century hagiographers argued that his greatest miracle was the founding of the Society itself), they recognized in the seventeenth century that Ignatius was not a "popular" saint. The kind of organizational prowess that Lucas underscores here was not a criterion for sainthood in his time. One senses that Ignatius, in the late twentieth century, is coming into his own. As a Jesuit himself (who, Ignatian-style, undertook the restoration of the rooms in which Ignatius devised his strategies) Thomas Lucas has lessons from the Society's past for the Jesuits of today. The Society, he notes in his conclusion to Landmarking, affirmed their historic mission in the urban centers of the world in their most recent general congregation. But I wonder, if Ignatius were alive today, whether he wouldn't be setting his sights on suburbia, on those malls,where he would find the needy and the elite in close proximity and in great numbers. EVONNE LeVY University ofToronto Tibet. Thefesuit Century. By Philip Caraman, SJ. [Number 20 in Series 4: Studies in Jesuit Topics.] (St. Louis: Institute ofJesuit Sources. 1997. Pp. viii, 154. $14.95 paperback.) This short study describes the perilous journeys ofJesuits during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries who discovered Tibet, where they established missions that might serve as intersecting points of a land route between China and India. Akbar the Great (1542-1605) of the Mughal Empire gave letters of introduction to Brother Bento de Goes (1563-1607), who left Agra in 1602 and reached Suzhou (Jiuquan xian) in western China via Kabul and the southern Gobi desert. Although he proved that Cathay and China were identical, some book reviews779 confreres in Goa still heard accounts of Christian communities north of India. Intent on finding such communities,Antonio de Andrade (1580-1634) entered Tsaparang and sent his report that became "the first book ever written on Tibet." In Tsaparang theJesuits set the cornerstone of the first Christian church in Tibet in 1626. The mission lasted only a few years due to widespread persecution . Earlier that same year Estaväo Cacella and Joào Cabrai (1598-1669) made their way to Shigatse, the city of the Panchen Lama. To report on the prospects of a mission there, Cabrai returned to Patna, India, via Katmandu. Cacella made his way to Bengal, where he got a Jesuit companion to accompany him back to Shigatse. The companion died en route. Cacella re-entered Shigatse but died there within a week of his arrival. Thereafter the Jesuits decided that missionary work in Tibet should be temporarily halted. With anotherJesuitjohann Grueber (1623-1680) left Rome in 1656 with orders to find a land route to China via Persia. This was impossible because of a war between Persia and its neighbors. Via Surat, India, and then the sea route to Macao, Grueber eventually reached Beijing. There he received orders to continue his exploration for a land route in reverse, that is, to proceed to India from Beijing. Grueber and his Belgian...


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