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BOOK REVIEWS775 clares that he was an ardent and monolithic supporter of Spain from the moment of his arrival in England in the 1 580s" (p. 13); the better informed would have read A. Lynn Martin's seminal treatment of Parsons's "Scottish strategy" and subsequent involvement with the Catholic League in France (Henry III and the Jesuit Politicans [Geneva, 1973])· Useful summaries ofA conference about the next succession to the crowne oflngland (n.p., 1594), uncritically attributed to Parsons despite scholarly disagreement, and the "Memorial for the Reformation of England" are vitiated by unsubstantiated assertions: e.g., the top priority of theJesuit mission to England was "toppling" the Elizabethan regime (p. 23), and reliance on misdated documents (see my reply, ante [April, 1998] , 302-304). Thomas M. McCoog, SJ. JesuitArchives, London Landmarking: City, Church &Jesuit Urban Strategy. By Thomas M. Lucas, SJ. (Chicago: Loyola Press. 1997. Pp. xvi, 244. $34.95.) Two distinct areas of inquiry—the history of the Society ofJesus and the history of Roman urbanism—meet in Thomas M. Lucas's Landmarking in a rare co-operative venture. On the one hand, this book makes an important contribution to the burgeoning interest in urban studies of the baroque period by connecting the concrete choices made by the earliestJesuits in Rome and elsewhere about where to build, to the specific demands of the Jesuit ministry as they were shaped. Landmarking is adamantly about where to build, not what or how and so bypasses all of the issues of style that have dominated the discussion ofJesuit architecture until recently. On the other hand,Landmarking is very much about St. Ignatius of Loyola, recasting the founder as a man of pragmatic piety, or pious pragmatism, whose far-reaching vision led him to devote a surprising amount ofhis own energy to building the future of the Society, more brick by brick, than soul by soul. The opening chapter traverses the Jesuit world, from Asia to Latin America, offering up suggestive juxtapositions ofJesuit urban strategies. From surprise usurpment (Goa), miraculous intervention (Peru), the argument of the legal brief (San Francisco), adaptive transformation (a barroom turned church in the Bowery), to the ingratiating effect of quinine (Beijing), the Jesuits from the sixteenth century to the present, Lucas argues, adapted their strategies for obtaining property to the situation at hand. This reading emphasizes Jesuit flexibility over fixed positions or rules, an argument that is hardly surprising; indeed that "flexibility" was perennially a much-criticized aspect of the Jesuit approach to moral and theological issues. But in this post-Colonial era, accommodation is one of the most recuperative ideas in Jesuit studies, one which recasts the Jesuits as much more sympathetic agents at the very forefront of complex encounters with alterity. 776BOOK REVIEWS Before arriving at the central core of Lucas's original research on the subject, a rereading of the entire corpus of Ignatius's formidable correspondence— more than 9,000 letters—in light of urban stratagem with extensive statistical analysis of the subject in appendices, Lucas sets a couple of stages. He casts the modernity of Ignatius's methods against his "feudal" upbringing, showing how cosmopolitan he must have become by the time he gave up the pilgrim's cape and settled in Rome in 1537. Lucas dwells on the tension in the earliest years of the association between the unrootedness of pilgrimage (which Ignatius and the early companions yearned for intensely) and the decision ultimately taken to institutionalize the group and thereby establish fixed residences, while the special fourth vow of obedience to the pope to undertake missionary work opened up the possibility for anyJesuit to be rooted elsewhere. To set these crucial decisions in context Lucas undertakes (Chaps. Ill-V) a very broad survey of the history and vicissitudes of the Christian pull to and away from the city, from Christ's own apostolate in Galilee, Paul's traversing of the Mediterranean world, to Constantine's political and urban strategies for locating the Church in Rome, caput mundi. With the pessimistic turn inward in Augustine's Civitas Dei, the city of man became an unsatisfactory way-station, almost desacralized. The rise of monasticism as a retreat from the city of man...


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