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742BOOK REVIEWS ated from linguistic snippets, ultimately from scripture but rephrased as "modern " speech and applied to new contexts. If the reliefs' relation to scripture is like that of the play's,would this provide insight into the process of artistic creation in the twelfth century? While not denying all that Glass suggests about the significance of the Entry intoJerusalem,! would suggest additional resonance for this subject in relation to the time-worn, yet still valid assertion that every Christian church represents the Heavenly Jerusalem. This significance is embedded in the psalms, antiphons , and readings for the consecration of a church. Scholars might ask, not whether specific churches represent the HeavenlyJerusalem, but whether Italian Romanesque churches seek to visualize that paradigm and if so,what is specific to their time and place in the way they relate building and text. Perhaps, as Glass suggests, the Italians focused on "the directness of the here and now" (p. 62), but this may not have been more relevant to them than the afterlife nor indicative of disinterest in theology. Glass cites Boncompagno of Signa on memory as expressing the Tuscan world view; but Boncompagno is paraphrasing St. Augustine (e.g., Confessions, 10.8-20 and De Trinitate 11.7). IfTuscan culture was less involved with abstract theological speculation than northern Europe (p. 62), perhaps this was because the Italians read more Augustine, or were attracted to different aspects of his work. Memory, for Augustine, is identified with the consciousness itself and with inner vision. That seeing the events depicted on the reliefs led the Tuscan spectator to associate the events depicted with experiences in his or her own life and thus to live them is consonant with Augustine's understanding of how memory operates as well as with Glass's iconographie interpretations. Christine Smith Graduate School ofDesign Harvard University Stift und Stadt. Das Heiliggrabpriorat von Santa Anna und das Regularkanonikerstift Santa Eulalia del Camp im mittelalterlichen Barcelona (1145-1423). By Nikolas Jaspert. [Berliner Historische Studien, Band 24. Ordernsstudien,X.] (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. 1996.Pp. 575;21 maps,5 tables and graphs. DM 138.00 paperback.) This substantial work, initially NikolasJaspert's doctoral dissertation directed by Professor Kaspar Elm and defended in 1994 at the Freie Universität in Berlin, matured well beyond this stage to be placed by Professor Joachim Ehlers into the Berliner Historische Studien series as the tenth volume about religious orders in the Middle Ages. Rather than a traditional institutional history of one house or the other, this study aims at an histoire totale in the ethnographical style ofNew Cultural History, integrating the entwined histories ofboth houses, BOOK REVIEWS743 the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre Priory of Sta. Anna and the Canons Regular convent of Sta. Eulalia, into the fabric of medieval Barcelonan daily life and vibrant civic culture. It is this combination of detail and intricate locality with broader contextualization of the Mediterranean world of the Crusades that is this study's strength. Despite the uniformity attributed by themselves and others to religious and military orders and their official identity, the Canons, Knights, their patrons and beneficiaries, formed intricate communities larger than their houses. These were not artificial, esoteric pre-organized coherent religious movements imported from some far-off inspirational centers, but were spontaneous and self-organizing, indigenous and semi-autonomous, brotherhoods that through affiliation grew into multi-type organizations and far-flung corporations that were highly influential in urban affairs and those of state for more than two centuries. In his introductory chapter and tabular form in his appended source references ,Jaspert lays out the archival fonds of Sta. Anna from the Arxiu Diocesa de Barcelona (ADB) which begin in the early 1140's during the resurgence of the crusade against the Muslim Ebro fortress kingdoms of Ilerda and Tortosa and subsequent major expansion of Arago-Catalunya and during the continuing struggle in the Holy Land. These records double in annual production after the 1220's and the Crown's expansion toward Valencia, reaching a crescendo in the 1330-1340's before the decline ofthe archives in 1350 and the end of the series in 1423 with the union of the priories and Sta. Anna and Sta. Eulalia...


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