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BOOK REVIEWS705 to the first, however, the impression is left that American Catholics have been poorly educated in the doctrinal development. As to the second, the book speaks occasionally of the new approach as "a retrieval" of tradition. But there was nothing to retrieve except the teaching of the Gospels, overshadowed by centuries of institutional practice. The lesson appears to be: the basic message of the Gospels, if attended to, can dissolve the thickest institutional crusts. John T. Noonan,Jr. United States Court ofAppeals for the Ninth Circuit Koptische Kirche und Reichskirche. Altes Schisma und neuer Dialog. By Dietmar W. Winkler. [Innsbrucker theologische Studien, Band 48.] (Innsbruck: Tyrolia Verlag. 1997. Pp. 367. ÖS 480, -;DM 68,-;SFr65.) This book, produced as a dissertation for the Catholic Theological Faculty of the University of Innsbruck, also forms part of a research project undertaken at the Institutfür Liturgiewissenschaft, Christliche Kunst und Hymnologie in Graz. The goal of the project (comparative research into the christology and ecclesiology ofthe Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Roman Catholic Church) is the comprehensive analysis of the separation of these churches and of the present ecumenical dialogue. Winkler has divided his book into three major sections. The first part (pp. 23-89) constitutes a very useful summary of the historical research (Grillmeier, Halleux, Martelos) that has been conducted on the christological controversies up to and including the Council of Chalcedon. The second part (pp. 90-200) attempts to follow the developments in Egypt after Chalcedon that led to the full separation of the Egyptian church from the Chalcedonian church in the sixth century with the establishment of rival hierarchies. This includes sections on Shenute, Timothy Aelurus, Peter Mongus and the Henoticon, Philoxenus and Severus of Antioch, Theodosius of Alexandria, observations on the Second Council of Constantinople, an analysis of texts from the liturgies of St. Basil and St. Gregory, and finally notes on the non-theological factors involved in the schism. Winkler presents a balanced and integrated picture of the various factors involved, theological and non-theological, especially the question of the historical rivalry betweenAlexandria and Constantinople, and the deposition of Dioscuros, all based on the best research of this century. He also gives a brief history of the polemical term "monophysite" and suggests the more accurate term"miaphysite"to designate the position of the main-stream non-Chalcedonian theology. On one point it is necessary to add a correction (of whichWinkler could not be aware). He suggests that after Shenute (whose writings he finds completely orthodox and free of contested technical terminology) we find no reflections of 706BOOK REVIEWS the post-Chalcedonian disputes in the Coptic literature ofupper Egypt (p. 109). The recently published homilies of Rufus of Shotep show on the contrary a keen sensitivity to theologically correct terminology. Additional unpublished material is likely to show the same. In the third part ofthe book (pp. 202-334)Winkler traces the involvement of the Coptic Church in the ecumenical movement beginning with its participation as a founding member in the World Council of Churches in 1948 and later its participation also as a founding member in the Middle East Council of Churches and the dialogues with other churches to which these contacts led. He divides his discussion into dialogues between the Oriental-Orthodox Churches and the Orthodox Church (unofficial and official) and dialogues between the Oriental-Orthodox Churches and the Roman-Catholic Church (unofficial [those sponsored by Pro Oriente in Vienna] and official). Winkler explains the degree of agreement to which these discussions have led on christological questions and the degree of disagreement that remains on eccesiological matters, as well as the difficulties of translating theological agreement into visible communion among the churches. Winkler's work provides a veritable guidebook to these complex developments of the last fifty years. It would also be interesting to know what are the sources used by the Oriental Orthodox theologians participating in these dialogues (beyond the classical authors such as Cyril and Severus) and to what extent they accept western historical scholarship. This is a very useful book,whether as a guide to the complexities ofthe christological disputes of the fifth and sixth centuries and recent research thereon or to the...


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