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342book reviews could rarely be dominated, as even the administration of prelates like Carlo Borromeo can demonstrate. This volume—like aU the others Ln this series—represents a body of crucial information for all those interested in early-modern reUgious history. William V Hudon Bloomsburg University William Byrd: Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. By John Harley. (Brookfield, Vermont: Scolar Press. Ashgate Publishing Company. 1997. Pp. xvi, 480. $76.95.) In his preface to this important study the author explains that his dual purpose has been "to summarize the currently avaUable biographical information about Byrd and to provide a brief account of his music with particular emphasis on its chronology." This is an impressive achievement, for WiUiam Byrd's legacy, by the time ofhis death at the age of eighty-three,was weU over five hundred compositions, varying from the short to the extremely complex, in a variety of styles, so that Harley has had to review a wide range of manuscript and printed sources. Born in London in 1540, Byrd's association with the WhitehaU palace chapel began as a gifted chorister who benefited from advanced teaching Ui voice, musical instruments including the organ, and composition from a number of masters, such as his Ufelong friend, Thomas TaIUs. In the reign of Mary Tudor, whUe he was between the age of thirteen and eighteen, Byrd had his last opportunities to sing and hear publicly the Latin Uturgical music, to which he would bring his extraordinary talents over three decades later in new compositions. In 1572, after Byrd had previously served at Lincoln cathedral as organist and master ofthe choristers for nine years, he was called back to be enrolled as a "Gentleman of the Chapel Royal."At Whitehall he was a member of an official choir of twenty-four male singers and organists, joined by twelve boy choristers, who provided the music for the services attended by the queen and her household. Harley's five biographical chapters and his conclusion, aptly entitled "Postscript ,"wiU be of considerable value to students of English Reformation history. Over five decades Byrd composed memorable hymns, motets, and anthems for the AngUcan rites, but privately composed others for his Catholic cUcle. WhUe his brothers and sisters were Protestants, Byrd with his wUe and chUdren were staunch recusants. Harley has documented the proceedings for recusancy against him and his wife for close to forty years (pp. 68-70, 127-131) yet finds no evidence of payment of the statutory fines or imprisonment. Meanwhile, one of his household, John Reason, was a prisoner several times (pp. 70-73). Apparently his open immunity from the penal code was due to his patrons, both Protestants and Catholics, and a letter to the attorney general from the queen's council (p. 126). Another favor from the queen was her grant in 1575 book reviews343 to Byrd and TaUis of a monopoly for twenty-one years of printing music, for which they dedicated to her a book of Latin motets (pp. 55, 216-217). In 1592 Byrd limited his attendance at the chapel, for he wished to compose a major Catholic liturgical series. This began Ui 1595 with the private printing of a new Ordinary of the Mass (Kyrie, Gloria, etc.) for three, four, and five voices (pp. 306-316) which he intended for CathoUc households where Mass was secretly celebrated. TheU considerable popularity led to new printings. To complete this unique updating of English Catholic worship Byrd pubUshed in 1606 and 1608 his two-volume Graduada ac cantiones sacrae, in which official prayers, hymns, and antiphons for the feasts such as Christmas,Annunciation, or Corpus Christi were arranged for the voice and could be selected by each household for their private Masses. Dedicated to two close friends,Baron Petre and the earl ofNorthampton and with the Ucence ofa notorious persecutor, Bishop Richard Bancroft (pp. 317-340) the appearance of these books was a milestone in English CathoUc music occasioned by the fortunate immunity from persecution of one of that century's greatest composers. John Harley has shed considerable light on a rarely appreciated aspect of the English Reformation. Albert J. Loomie Fordham University Celestial Sirens: Nuns and Their Music in...


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