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book reviews329 The book has a well-constructed index, and in a few places the author has added notes to update articles. Despite the nature ofthe book,there is little repetition . The two articles on York chantries are the lone exception although much ofhis study of the social origins and monastic lives ofDurham monks has since appeared in chapter two of his Durham Priory 1400-1450. A young scholar might note the numerous occasions when Dobson points out an area deserving of further study; for example, the success of the archdiocese of York in fuLfiUing its obügations and roles"must await an intensive exploration of the voluminous and almost entirely unpubUshed records of the late medieval chapter and diocese of York" (p. 196). This is a valuable collection of articles U for no other reason than that the province of Canterbury overshadows its northern counterpart. Hambledon Press should be congratulated for printing this kind of book which makes avaUable a substantial body ofwork from a single scholar which would otherwise be dUficult to access. John W Dahmus Stephen F.Austin State University Nacogdoches, Texas Early Modern European Donna, disciplina, creanza cristiana dal XV al XVII secólo. Studi e testi a stampa. Edited by Gabriella Zarri. [Terni e Testi, Nuova Serie, 36.] (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. 1996. Pp. 800. Lire 150.000.) This massive volume is divided into two almost equal parts. The first contains nineteen essays, whUe the second consists of an extensive preliminary finding Ust of Italian vernacular books from the later fifteenth to the seventeenth century intended for the instruction ofwomen Ln the norms of Christian Ufe. These norms dealt with general deportment, proper conduct in women's dUferent states of IUe, and ideals of spiritual and moral development. AdditionaUy, a large category of books presented models of Christian life and virtue through biographies of or reflections on activities and the spirituality of female saints and women who were beatified or possessed of heroic virtues. In her brief introduction Gabriella Zarri, a leading scholar on early modern Italian women, notes that whUe the theme of the volume is the relation of women and books, its specific aim is to explore the role of the printed word in the process of what has come to be caUed disciplining, whether social or religious . Ultimately, the primary objective of this work is to help readers gain a better understanding of how female identity was constructed in Italy especiaUy during the post-Tridentine period. The CouncU fathers had stressed that women's proper sphere was the famUy and the church, and a myriad of printed 330BOOK REVIEWS works reinforced theU teaching. Women were readers and in some cases, authors of works that presented a basicaUy monastic ideal of female comportment . Chastity,humility, and obedience were systematically exalted, and women were exhorted to be pious, dress modestly, and go about with head bowed and eyes downcast—in brief, to become paragons of behavior that would lead to good order in church, family, and society. The editor guided a team that compiled the finding-list or repertorio of 2626 works from printed sources like catalogues or bibliographies, and holdings of mostly Northern Italian libraries. By way of introduction, Paola Tantulli explains criteria for inclusion of works in the repertorio. Clear cross-references and several indexes, for example by title, author, or editor, greatly facilitate its use. Because no general catalogue of Italian rare books exists, this list will be particularly valuable to anyone doing research on early modern Italian women. The essays in the first part of the volume are grouped into three sections of unequal length, titled "Printed texts, books and women readers," the long second section on "DiscipUne and comportment: construction of a model" (subdivided into "Model," "Rule," and "Norm"), and lastly "The model interpreted." It goes without saying that some essays are more pertinent to the theme of the volume than others. But together, they illustrate the kinds of questions that might be raised by the books listed, and include some fine and informative discussions of models for virgins, wives, widows, and nuns. EspeciaUy interesting are essays examining the impact which Tridentine marriage norms had on famUy...


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