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BOOK REVIEWS123 the 1950's Madeleva was one ofthe promoters ofthe Sister Formation program. A scholar in her own right, Madeleva did postdoctoral studies at Oxford, had more than fifteen volumes of her poetry published in her lifetime, traveled widely as a lecturer, and numbered among her friends and correspondents Henry and Clare Booth Luce, Thomas Merton, and C. S. Lewis. Madeleva belonged to a generation that saw a far-reaching transition in the role of women in the Church. Among the first nuns to do a number of things, she lived to see a profound change in the education of women, a change to which she contributed much. She died in 1964 at the mid-point of Vatican Council II, which would open the door to even more changes. One might wish that Mandell had situated Madeleva more clearly in the context ofher times and of Catholic higher education in America. A good index is one of the admirable features of this book. James T. Connelly, C.S.C. University ofPortland A Cautious Patriotism: The American Churches & the Second World War. By Gerald L. Sittser. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1997. Pp. xi, 317. $39.95.) Sittser's book has taken us a fair distance across one of the largest gaps in our knowledge ofAmerican religion, the role that the churches played in WorldWar II. Sad to say, he has not led us all the way across, though his work will serve as a useful foundation for further studies of the topic. The study begins logically with an examination of the churches and the inexorable movement of the 1930's toward the war, then proceeds through a discussion of such topics as conscription, conscientious objection, and the atomic bomb, and concludes with a set of reflections on the churches and the postwar world. The high point of the book is the author's examination ofthat disastrous epic in American history, the incarceration of theJapanese-Americans. Most historians are probably unaware ofthe remarkable relief efforts carried out by several Protestant denominations on their behalf. We have assumed (incorrectly) that the churches blithely ignored the camp-system, as did the rest ofthe American public. Not so, Sittser shows convincingly. A small group of Protestant church-goers, led by their zealous ministers, brought the camps' inmates muchneeded assistance, and they also put themselves at considerable risk by publicly condemning the government's policy of "resettlement," as it was euphemistically called. Students of American religion will serve themselves well if they carefully read this part of the book (pp. 169-178). If the story of the Japanese-Americans is the book's summit, then its nadir is probably the author's inexplicable failure to make use of documentary materials . The book rests almost entirely on magazine articles and denominational re- 124BOOK REVIEWS ports, and it rests uneasily. It has a thinness and a once-over-lightly quality that not only weakens its thesis and robs it of richness of detail, but also leaves the reader with the nagging feeling that the whole story has not been told. One finds none of the inside stories, the conflicts, the private successes, that make up the stuff of history. The book tells only the published part of the story, thus serving its topic and the work's readers poorly. To say that the author has neglected to use such sources is not to say that they do not exist. For Catholics, he could have used the rich archival sources available at The Catholic University of America or at the University of Notre Dame; for Jews (whom he ignores, save for the Holocaust), he could have worked with the excellent Jewish collections available at Brandeis University; and for Protestants, he should have taken a long look at the Protestant collections located across the country, but especially that best of denominational archives, the Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia. I am surprised that my quondam publisher let this get by. Nor does the author's writing help his case. The reader's patience will be strained by his fondness for clich├ęs, his excessive use of the verb "to be" and the passive voice (I counted ten instances...


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