Rules of Elision and Hiatus in the Galician-Portuguese Lyric: the View from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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RULES OF ELISION AND HIATUS IN THE GAUCIAN-PORTUGUESE LYRIC: THE VIEW FROM THE CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARIA Stephen Parkinson Linacre College, Oxford Editing the CSM and the Galician-Portuguese Lyric One ofthe most unsatisfactory aspects ofthe study ofthe GalicianPortuguese lyric has been the segregation of the religious lyric -the Cantigas de Santa Maria. (CSM)- from die secular lyric or lirica profana galego-portuguesa. In addition to the obvious distortions of scholarly perspective on language, style and literary form, this has had major effects on dre theory arrd practice of textual editing, by removing a necessary model from an area where personality and practice have all too often outweighed principle. It is well known that the two branches ofthe Galician-Portuguese lyric have markedly different manuscript traditions. The bulk of the secular lyric exists in two sixteenth-century Italian copies offourteendicentury Portuguese or Galician compilations - however the manuscript stemma is constructed (Antonio Resende de Oliveira 25-27), these witnesses are several centuries and several branches away from dieir archetypes. In contrast, the religious lyric is preserved in four manuscripts of high quality, original compilations or copies executed widiin a short time of the original compositions (Martha E. Schaffer, "Los códices de las Cantigas", "The Evolution of the Cantigas"). No rrrusic is preserved in any of the secular cancioneiros, whereas three of die four CSAi manuscripts have well-preserved music, and all but two ofthe 420 cantigas have music from at least one MS source. In addition, the CSAi provide much better evidence for metrical practice dian the La corónica 34.2 (Spring, 2006): 113-33 114Stephen ParkinsonLa corànica 34.2, 2006 lirica profana galego-porluguesa. The range ofexpressions is much wider, the metrical schemes are better defined and more rigorously applied, and the text-music relations are much clearer, especially in the initial strophes, which accompany the music. Ofearlier editors ofthe GalicianPortuguese lyric, only Manuel Rodrigues Lapa seems to have studied CSM metrics with any depth. Rip Cohen refreshingly uses the CSM as a linguistic base for resolving questions of language in his editing of the cantigas de amigo. There is good reason, then, that if principles of poetic practice and text-music relations are to be established and applied to the construction of editorial principles, the religious lyric should provide a model for the secular lvric. This is, sadly, not the case, as the editing ofthe CSM has been short orr principle, and has typically been ignored by editors of the lírica proJana galego-porluguesa. The CSM have been edited three times, by Valmar in 1889, and by Walter Mettman in 1959-64 and again in 1986-89, each time without any discussion of general editorial practice, let alone any attempt to establish principles valid beyond the corpus.1 The high quality ofthe manuscript tradition seems to have deterred such discussion: facile decisions taken regarding the relative priority of manuscripts were allowed to dominate the jirocess of textual editing and even the presentation of the text (Parkinson, Review of Mettmann). The idea that there were textual problems was not generally accepted until the 1990s (Parkinson, "Discussion: Editing the CSM"). There has been almost tro interpénétration of textual and musical editing." The main discussion of editorial principles for the lírica profana galego-porluguesa, particularly regarding metrical regularities and principles of emendation in the secular lyric, is contained in the work of Celso Cimba and Manuel Rodrigues Lapa, in their ovni editions of sections of the Galician-Portuguese corpus and a courteous but less than cordial exchange of critical articles between 1950 and 1961 (before Mettmann's first edition of the CSM was fully in the public domain). This debate resulted in general acceptance of a number of key principles of metrical editing defended bv Cunha. particularly 1 There have been partial editions ofthe CSM. with different conventions, byJesús Montova Martinez and Elvira Fidalgo. " A shilling counterexample is Manuel Pedro Ferreira. who nevertheless follows Celso Cimila in allowing musical performance to cover a multitude ofmetrical sins. e.g.. "bastaría urna pequeña alteraçâo articulatoria ou a simples omissâo de urna nota sobre a cesura para que um verso de treie...