Dr. Futch received his Ph.D. degree from Emory University in 1959, taught two years at Morehouse College, and is now on the history staff at the University of South Florida. His doctoral dissertation, from which this article was gleaned, was a study of Andersonville Prison, based largely on soldiers' letters and diaries.
2. Ransom A. Chadwick, "A Diary Kept in Andersonville Prison as a Member of the 85th New York Regiment," manuscript, Minnesota Historical Society Library, entries of June 27, July 2, 12, 1864 (hereafter cited as Chadwick, "Diary"); E. Merton Coulter (ed.), "From Spotsylvania Courthouse to Andersonville: A Diary of Darius Starr," Georgia Historical Quarterly. XLI (1957), 10 (hereafter cited as "Starr Diary"); Eugene Forbes, Diary of a Soldier and Prisoner of War in the Rebel Prisons (Trenton, 1865), pp. 11, 17, 27. Hereafter cited as Forbes, Diary of a Soldier.
4. David Kennedy, "Diary of David Kennedy, Kept by Him While a Prisoner at Andersonville," manuscript Minnesota Historical Society Library, entry for May 11, 1864 (hereafter cited as Kennedy, "Diary"); Donald F. Danker (ed.), "Imprisoned at Andersonville: The Diary of Albert Harry Shatzel, May 5—September, 1864," Nebraska History, XXXVIII (1957), 115-16, 120 (hereafter cited as "Shatzel Diary"); J. M. Burdick, "Journal of Sgt. J. M. Burdick," manuscript in possession of Richard J. Harris, Swainsboro, Ga., entries for July 12, 18, Aug. 4, 1864. Hereafter cited as "Burdick Journal."
6. Chadwick, "Diary," entries for May 17-Sept. 5, 1864, passim; Kennedy, "Diary," entries for May 4-Sept. 6, 1864, passim; Burdick, "Journal," entries for July 31, Aug. 20, 31, Sept. 2, 1864; McElroy, Andersonville, pp. 154-55. See also C. M. Destler (ed.), "A Vermonter in Andersonville: Diary of Charles Ross, 1864," Vermont History, XXV (1957), 239. Hereafter cited as "Ross Diary."
8. "Andersonville, Ga. Rolls of Deceased Federal Prisoners, 1864-65," Box 20, Record Group 249, National Archives; Columbus (Ga.) Daily Enquirer, May 12, 1864. See also U.S. War Dept. (comp.), War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, 1880-1901), Ser. II, VII, 438, 517, 708. Hereafter cited as OR, with all references being to Ser. II.
14. Lawrence E. Hinkle, Jr., and Harold G. Wolff, "Communist Interrogation and Indoctrination of 'Enemies of the State,'" A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, LXXVI (1956), 130, 170-71; Bruno Bettelheim, "Individual and Mass Behavior in Extreme Situations," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XXXVIII (1943), 438-39, 447.
17. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, pp. 56-57. See also K. C. Bullard, Over the Dead-Line, Or Who Killed "Poll Parrot" (New York, 1909), pp. 16-17, 31-32. Eighteen feet inside the stockade wall, the "deadline" was a row of posts set in the earth and connected by boards across their tops. Almost every prison, North and South, had its deadline.