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THE DEVELOPMENT OF KOREAN STUDIES IN THE UNITED STATES --------------------- by Andrew C, Nahm*PART I Introduction Formalized Korean Studies were virtually non-existent up to the mid-1960's in the United States, while Chinese and Japanese Studies were being established as legitimate academic disciplines during the 1940's and 50's. Recently, however, a handful of Korean specialists, who have been pioneering in this neglected field of study, were joined by young and capable academicians and researchers, and as a consequence, centers for Korean Studies are now emerging at various institutions. The American interest in Korea's political, economic, and military affairs, as well as in her culture increased considerably following the Korean War, and the activities of specialists which fostered academic programs in the United States, led some to foresee the development of an academic field of "Koreanology" in the United States. The purpose of this article is to briefly study the history, as well as the *Dr. Andrew C. Nahm is Professor of History and Head of the Asian Studies Program at Western Michigan University, and the Editor of the Korean Section of the Newsletter of the Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 9 ??/Nahm present status, of Korean Studies in the United States. The author will also look into the future of Korean Studies in the United States and examine some of the problems which must be solved if it is to grow and expand further. 1. The Western Pioneers in Korean Studies Korea was a terra incognita to the western world until the late 19th century. Unlike China or Japan, Korea evoked little curiosity or interest among western people. However, growing commercial and missionary interests of the west brought an inevitable contact between Korea and the west, and as a result, there appeared some accounts of Korea by western visitors to her land or territorial waters,1 marking the beginnings of Korean Studies in the west. Serious attempts to study her history and culture began only after the signing of the American-Korean (Chemulp'o) Treaty of 1882, when books and articles on Korea were written by relatively well-educated and sophisticated Protestant missionaries and diplomatic personnel in Korea. The pioneers of Korean Studies were: Homer B. Hulbert, James S. Gale, William E. Griffis, Joseph H. Longford, John Ross, Horace N. Allen, and F. A. McKinzie , who were later joined by George M. and Evelyn B. McCune and his brother, Shannon B. McCune.2 These, along with scores of others, who either 1.There were no early accounts of Americans in Korea, except those writings related to the 1871 military incidents between the U. S. and Korea, along with the diplomatic papers dealing with Korea. Most early accounts on Korea were those of Europeans. Some important ones were: McLeod, John, Voyage of His Majesty's Ship, AIceste, Along the Coast ofKorea to the Island ofLew Chew with an Account of the Subsequent Ship-wreck. London, 1818. Gutzlaff, Charles F. A., Journal of Three Voyages Along the Coast ofChina in 1831, 1832, and 1833, with Notes ofSiam, Korea, and the Loo-Choo Island. London, 1834. Dallet, Charles, Histoire de l'église de Coreé. 2 vols. Paris: V. Palme, 1874. Oppert, Ernest, A Forbidden Land. London, 1880. Ross, John, Korea, Its History, Manners and Customs. Paisley, 1880. Hamel, Hendrick, "An Account of a Dutch Vessel on the Coast of the Isle of Quelpart, Together With a Description of the Kingdom of Korea," TAKBRAS, IX, 1918. 2.Some of the important works on Korea which appeared before 1910 were: Korea Repository (1892-98) and Korea Review (1901-1906), both of which were monthlies and edited by Homer B. Hulbert; The History ofKorea and the Passing ofKorea by Homer B. Hulbert, Korea in Transition and Korean Grammatical Forms by James S. Gale; History of Corea, Ancient and Modern by John Ross: Corea, Korean Studies in the United States/11 worked in Korea or visited her, made various attempts at scholarly inquiries into Korea's history and civilization. Through their writings and publications, more and more Americans became conversant with and enlightened about Korea and her people, particularly about the fate of a dying nation ofthe Yi Dynasty at the hands...


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