Perhaps the revolution, then, must begin in the minds (pace Marx), and there is indeed hope that this might happen. In 2008, the Lula government passed a law that makes philosophy and sociology classes obligatory in all Brazilian high schools. Every student now studies these disciplines over three years. The Socratic revision of beliefs will surely not change things as quickly as a socialist revolution. But if the new disciplines are well implemented, they could help embed change in the democratic process and give citizens the intellectual tools to take charge of their life.


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