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BOOK REVIEWS Edited by Edwin B. Bronner William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania, ¡680-1684. A Documentary History. Edited by Jean Soderlund. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. 380 pp. $20.00. The founding of Pennsylvania provides a fascinating story for us all because we recognize the situation: ideals in contact with reality. William Penn's ideals were lofty, though he was certainly a practical man, but with constituencies in England and America it proved impossible to satisfy himself and them. This is not, then, a story of failure or of unqualified success but of life—in which the major character was an energetic and talented Quaker who did a betterjob than most ofus could have. The book under consideration here covers the same period as volume II of 777ePapers of William Penn ,with the deletion of some documents and the addition of a few others, all to the very good effect of both streamlining and yet rounding out the documentary history of the founding, making it a handy but complete volume. We move from the negotiations for the charter of Pennsylvania (sections I, II) to the promotion and selling phase (III, IV) and the political plans (V) before launching the colonists (VI). We then encounter the matter of settling in (VII), governing (VIlI), relations with European and native American neighbors (IX, X), and the proprietor 's troubles with the colonists (XI) and the English government (XII). Jean R. Soderlund. who has been an associate editor of the Papers but has undertaken the editor's job on this volume, must be credited with upholding the high standards established by Richard and Mary Dunn. In addition, she has introduced a glossary to this volume, thus showing a sensitivity to the fact that some ofthe parties reading it will need and can profit from that sort ofaid. It is easy to see the wisdom of providing this special volume ofdocuments. It has an obvious classroom utility, but I hope it will receive an even wider audience. San Francisco State UniversityJoseph E. Illick Private Philanthropy and Public Welfare: The Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust, 1954-1979. By Lewis E. Waddilove. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983. 263 pp. cloth, $29.50. Available from Allen & Unwin, Inc., 9 Winchester, MA 01890. This is a most interesting record of institutional pioneering. The story involves a very large British trust, the successor to three linked trusts founded in 1904 by Joseph Rowntree, head of a well-known cocoa importing firm. The early trusts and their modern successor exemplify the thoughtful and sensitive way that individuals, acting through non-governmental bodies , can serve the general welfare. Particularly at present, when many social problems appear insoluble, this analysis of practical experience by the man who directed the trust from 1949 to 1979 will provide valuable perspective to a wide audience. In Part'I the author reviews the interaction between the founder's intentions and the evolution ofhousing and other problems in the U.K. up to World War II. Creative 62 Book Reviews63 organizational changes were needed, and by 1959 a new legal framework had been established for the reconstituted Trust. Among charitable organizations this one reflected the founder's concern to search out what needed doing, avoid what others were taking care of, and examine carefully the effectiveness of remedial efforts. A critical and experimental approach to helping others has distinguished its work, squarely in the religious tradition of the Society of Friends. Part II of the study summarizes the Trust's new efforts in the field of low-cost housing and community development, an area in which it has had worldwide influence. What could local groups accomplish and what required government management? How could old housing be renovated for the elderly? The Trust worked with a variety ofother groups, supporting creative experiments and evaluating results, stressing the need to adapt to change. The central section of the book describes a variety of carefully chosen fields in which the Trust sought to discover effective ways of meeting social problems. They supported analytic research at universities and in the field, helped to found a center for training social workers, funded a center for studies in social policy, and systematically monitored the...


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