Six criteria were used to identify studies in which behavior modification was used with hearing-impaired students. Thirty-four studies were selected and analyzed with regard to the students involved, setting, procedures, target behaviors, accommodations for hearing impairment, evaluation, and place of publication. Comparison of the studies supported the conclusions that, although frequently behavior modification has not been specifically adapted for hearing-impaired students, it has been used successfully with those students. It also has been used to teach hearing-impaired students a variety of academic and general social skills. Further research is needed, however, particularly on the use of behavior modification to teach specific academic skills and on the use of complex procedures such as chaining and varying the schedules of reinforcement.