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Renaissance natural philosophers believed that meteorological phenomena were imperfect mixtures that lacked their own essences or substantial forms. This contention, along with the lack of any significant discussion of teleology in Aristotle's Meteorology, left Renaissance natural philosophers with several options in discussions of the final causes of weather. Some, particularly Italian scholars, contended that there were no final causes for meteorological events. In contrast, Pietro Pomponazzi argued that, while meteorological phenomena were accidental, they were purposeful as part of God's ordering of the universe, even though humans are unable to understand these purposes. Many Lutheran scholars believed that these ends could be known, arguing that their purpose derived from their being divine signs of the future and God's will.