International technology transfer and the associated flow of technical knowledge have come to be traditionally regarded as processes developed in invariable—and too frequently liberal—economic systems. But what occurs in the event of strongly planned and ideologized state economies? Even more, to what degree was the technology inflow to the Spanish oil industry during the Franco regime affected by a severe policy of autarchy, and by subsequent liberalizing policies? Historical evidence seems to suggest that this liberalization during the 1950s modified previous transfer modes and rates and even the nature of relations among the actors. Thus in effect, instead of the mere acquisition of “turnkey” technology from foreign sources—the characteristic pattern during the autarchic period—we observe a more complex transfer and greater trend to promote new associations and alliances for contracting with foreign specialists.