restricted access A Long-Standing Canadian Tradition: Citizenship Revocation and Second-Class Citizenship under the Liberals, 1993–2006

Although Canadians are said to be equal as citizens, citizenship revocation distinguishes the Canadian-born, who possess their citizenship as of right, from the foreign-born, for whom it is a privilege that can be taken away. This essay reviews three efforts to change the revocation process during 1993–2006 within the context of Canadian revocation policies since Confederation. These proposals would have significantly increased this rights-based disparity. Moreover, the politics of citizenship in Canada and the meaning of being Canadian changed significantly as discussions around citizenship revocation became embedded within a new discourse and politics of national security after 2001.