- In This Issue
In this issue, CTTS concludes a symposium focused on the question of human migration and technology transfer, and also presents a pair of cases studies on technology transfer during the cold war involving countries outside the Western sphere of political interest.
Symposium on Human Migration and Technology Transfer, Part 2: Globalization, Human Migration, and Technology Transfer
This is the second of two issues comprising the symposium on "Human Migration and Technology Transfer." In the previous issue's symposium introduction, we suggested that:
• Intersecting trends and conditions—communication and transportation; products and capital; war, terrorism, violence, and ethnic conflict; environmental pollution, natural disasters, epidemics, and climate change; and global migrations—lead to a smaller, more interconnected world (Keohane & Nye, 2000; Klingner, 2004).
• Migration covers many types of human mobility: displacement and exile due to war and ethnic violence, economic diasporas, and expatriation and repatriation as deliberate national-development strategies.
• Because human mobility occurs within a cultural context, its meaning is not only economic, but also social, racial and ethnic, political, economic, environmental, and linguistic (Rodrik, 2000).
The two symposium articles in the previous issue were both case studies. The first was Mobility Matters: Research Training and Network Building in Science by Richard Woolley, Tim Turpin, Jane Marceau, and Stephen Hill. These four Australian scholars focused on the role of human-capital mobility in six large economies in the Asia-Pacific region. Results from this exploratory survey of scientists publishing in journals indexed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) show that these early career moves strongly correlate with the distributive knowledge networks through which innovative capabilities are both distributed and connected up to global knowledge hubs. The second case study was Realizing Professional Knowledge Exchange: The People's Republic of China and the Philippines by Clay G. Wescott, director of the Asia-Pacific Governance Institute. [End Page vii] This case study examined the use of diasporas as a conscious development technique in these two countries. It concluded that such knowledge exchanges by returned overseas Filipino and Chinese professionals could produce gains potentially greater than the loss of professional skills from migration.
This symposium continues in this issue with two more conceptually focused articles. In the first, Skilled Migrants' Dynamics, Institutions, Innovation, and Diffusion: A Conceptual and Analytical Framework to Assess Patterns of (Re)integration, expatriate Portuguese researcher André Corrêa d'Almeida argues that a diffusion of innovations model (DIM) can be used together with complexity theory to construct a conceptual framework that explains skilled migrants' behavior and patterns of (re)integration, in either their homeland or their host country. He uses this framework, which combines aspects of institutions, networks, and migration theories, to identify and distinguish between those aspects of institutional structure that favor and those that hinder skilled migrants' entrepreneurial aspirations. Empirical results derived from this conceptual framework can enrich the lessons learned from their experiences and prompt the adoption of policies that favor these migrants' personal performances, increase their capacity to fulfill entrepreneurial aspirations, and enhance the roles they can play in development processes. This analysis is documented through case studies and scholarly literature on complexity theory and innovation diffusion.
In the second article, "Going Global": Why Do Multinational Corporations Participate in Highly Skilled Migration?, University of Delaware political scientist Christopher Counihan examines migration from the perspective of multinational corporations (MNCs). Unlike other authors in this two-part symposium, he views the process of highly skilled migration from the perspective of private-sector MNCs rather than those of migrants or governments. And unlike other authors in this symposium, he frames MNCs' tendencies to promote international assignments as not only an objective aspect of the career-development process for future leaders, but also as a socially constructed phenomenon. For constructivists, identity-formation (the ongoing process that takes place both within individuals and social collectives of deciding who they want to be) precedes the process of interest-formation (the attempt to specify what they want to do). Counihan's article focuses on the evolution of senior MNC executives' motivations and strategies in sending their "best and brightest" overseas. For MNCs today, the dominant discourse that powers collective identity-formation processes is the desire...