restricted access Engineering International Expansion: IBM and Remington Rand in European Computer Markets

US computer manufacturers—including IBM and Remington Rand—expanded into Europe after World War II. The companies overcame resistances and adjusted to different market conditions; how they did this, and why IBM succeeded more than others, is examined here. This article argues that IBM adeptly managed—or engineered—relationships with foreign governments and stakeholders through a European-wide manufacturing system and European research laboratories.