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Engineering International Expansion: IBM and Remington Rand in European Computer Markets
Abstract

Abstract:

US computer manufacturers—including IBM and Remington Rand—expanded into Europe after World War II. The companies overcame resistances and adjusted to different market conditions; how they did this, and why IBM succeeded more than others, is examined here. This article argues that IBM adeptly managed—or engineered—relationships with foreign governments and stakeholders through a European-wide manufacturing system and European research laboratories.