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'The Cream,' The 'Clear,' BALCO and Baseball: An Analysis of MLB Players Image
Abstract

Abstract:

In 2003, the FBI raided BALCO laboratory. The client list of the "nutritional supplement lab" included Major League Baseball players Barry Bonds and Jason Giambi. They were accused of using performance-enhancing drugs manufactured by BALCO. A content analysis examined newspaper coverage for three years. Results revealed articles had a negative tone toward the baseball industry, and sources were depicted as knowledgeable but lacking character. The players repaired their image by shifting the blame, evading responsibility, and apologizing.